This latter fact may contribute to an impression that sometimes occurs, that operant conditioning is really just “bribery in disguise,” that only the external reinforcements operate on students’ behavior. Mental-discipline theories; Naturalistic theories; Apperception theories; Conditioning and behaviourist theories; Cognitive theories; Maturation and readiness theories; Structural theories When scaffolding is provided, students seem more competent and “intelligent,” and they learn more. Bruner, J. Lave and Wenger, on the other hand, view the diversity in knowledge levels as the best asset to a community of practice. Constructivism gained notoriety in the 1930s-40s and enjoyed a resurgence in the 1970s-80s. Following Piaget, cognitive constructivism acknowledges age-based developmental learning stages and articulates learning as an expansion (through assimilation and accommodation processes) of a learner’s experientially informed mental model of their world. (The levels are defined briefly in Error: Reference source not found with examples from Goldilocks and the Three Bears.). Rejecting all didactic approaches, experientialism argues that one person cannot effectively impart knowledge directly to another person; people must learn for themselves. Operant conditioning. It views behavior as a result of one’s thoughts. (Eds.). Fosnot, C. An early expression of this viewpoint came from the American psychologist Jerome Bruner (1960, 1966, 1996), who became convinced that students could usually learn more than had been traditionally expected as long as they were given appropriate guidance and resources. This circumstance limits the child’s ability to learn in the usual, school-like sense of the term. From this point of view, the more such dialogue occurs, then the more the child can acquire facility with it. Gruber, H. & Voneche, J. Metacognition can sometimes be difficult for students to achieve, but it is an important goal for social constructivist learning because it gradually frees learners from dependence on expert teachers to guide their learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Skinner observed the behavior of rather tame laboratory rats (not the unpleasant kind that sometimes live in garbage dumps). If I am student with Mr Horrible as my teacher, does he scowl every time he is in the classroom, or only sometimes? and the major learning theories (behaviorism, Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner), as related to educational psychology and the implications to teaching. And still another example—one often relevant to new teachers: when I began my first year of teaching, I was more focused on doing the job of teaching—on day-to-day survival—than on pausing to reflect on what I was doing. Select the part of the story where Goldilocks seemed most comfortable. In operant conditioning, a cue is a stimulus that happens just prior to the operant behavior and that signals that performing the behavior may lead to reinforcement. (Ed.). But it can also be provoked through pictures or activities that are unfamiliar to students—by engaging students in a community service project, for example, that brings them in contact with people who they had previously considered “strange” or different from themselves. These requirements sound, of course, a lot like the requirements for classroom teaching. Download Full PDF Package. A child’s schema for bird, for example, includes not only the relevant verbal knowledge (like knowing how to define the word “bird”), but also the child’s experiences with birds, pictures of birds, and conversations about birds. Hull’s Deductive Theory. This article throws light upon the top five theories of learning. The “spread” of the new behavior to similar behaviors is called generalization. A seventh-grade boy makes a silly face (the operant) at the girl sitting next to him. In most of them the operant behavior tends to become more frequent on repeated occasions: These examples are enough to make several points about operant conditioning. He called such support instructional scaffolding—literally meaning a temporary framework like the ones used to construct buildings and that allow a much stronger structure to be built within it. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Gradually the rat would spend more time near the lever and press the lever more frequently, getting food more frequently. (1995). New York: Cambridge University Press. One of the pioneers in the field was a Harvard professor named B. F. Skinner, who published numerous books and articles about the details of the process and who pointed out many parallels between operant conditioning in animals and operant conditioning in humans (1938, 1948, 1988). One of the most widely used frameworks for organizing content, for example, is a classification scheme proposed by the educator Benjamin Bloom, published with the somewhat imposing title of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook #1: Cognitive Domain (Bloom, et al., 1956; Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). Social constructivism sees abstract thinking emerging from dialogue between a relative novice (a child or youth) and a more experienced expert (a parent or teacher). Assessing and judging the value or ideas, objects, or materials in a particular situation. Although the discipline of educational psychology includes numerous theories, many experts identify five main schools of thought: behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, experientialism, and social contextual learning theories. Understanding facts, interpreting information. Read easy-to-understand guides for psychology, education, business and design. By placing an emphasis on activities that prompt effective perception and processing, educators can activate the learner’s prior experience, demonstrate a new skill for the learner, ask the learner to practice the skill, and then invite application of those skills in practical scenarios. For another example: when I reached the point in life where I began cooking meals for myself, I was more focused on whether I could actually produce edible food in a kitchen than with whether I could explain my recipes and cooking procedures to others. From this perspective a teacher should limit the amount of thinking about abstract ideas that she expects from students. decrease or stop) book-reading behavior. In social constructivism, as also explained earlier, development is thought to happen largely because of scaffolded dialogue in a zone of proximal development. Departing from the comparative emphasis of behaviorists, cognitivists see human beings as rational creatures quite different from animals. The dialogue must, of course, honor a child’s need for intellectual scaffolding or a zone of proximal development. Discrimination means learning not to generalize. So do not make up your mind about the relative merits of different learning theories yet! From these collective revisions and additions the child gradually constructs whole new schemata about birds, butterflies, and other flying objects. Behaviorism also influences the sequence and methods used during the teaching and learning process. It posits learning as the process of changing a learner’s mental model or schematic understanding of knowledge. Another kindergarten child blurts out her comment without being called on (the operant). Prospective college students researching academic programs should consider our ranked lists of schools. Meanwhile, colleges offer undergraduates internships and study abroad programs, and graduate schools often incorporate practicum experiences that allow students to apply what they have learned in other courses. In psychology, both behavior modification and behavior therapy owe their origins to behaviorism. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Using the computer as a metaphor for the human mind, cognitivists see learning as a product of mental faculties and activities, including thought, knowledge, memory, motivation, reflection, and problem-solving. New York: Basic Books. Assuming that changes in behavior signify learning, methodological behaviorists see no fundamental difference between human and animal learning processes, and they often conduct comparative research on animals. In operant conditioning, the schedule of reinforcement refers to the pattern or frequency by which reinforcement is linked with the operant. Many teachers try to incorporate multifaceted, experiential learning environments that assist students in forging meaningful connections between abstract and practical concepts. Behaviorism is a perspective on learning that focuses on changes in individuals’ observable behaviors— changes in what people say or do. The first time that I drove a car, for example, I was concerned primarily with whether I could actually do the driving, not with whether I could describe or explain how to drive. This led to new metaphors for learning as a “participation” and “social negotiation.”. Note that in all of these examples, focusing attention on behavior instead of on “thoughts” may have been desirable at that moment, but not necessarily desirable indefinitely or all of the time. The teacher calls on her and she makes her comment (the reinforcement). These relationships are diagrammed in Exhibit 2. The setup of many learning experiences today reflects persistent cognitivist ideas, approaches, and assumptions. Other schools of thought critique behaviorism for underemphasizing biological and unconscious factors, denying free will, equating humans with animals, and overlooking internal learning processes or types of learning that occur without reinforcement. (As a teacher-friend once said to me: “Don’t just do something; stand there!”) But neither is focusing on behavior which is not necessarily less desirable than focusing on students’ “inner” changes, such as gains in their knowledge or their personal attitudes. To create our rankings, we've developed a methodology by compiling relevant indicators from national databases about postsecondary... Psychology.org is an advertising-supported site. As psychologists, these professionals often work directly with children — and in collaboration with parents and teachers — to improve a child’s learning outcomes. Despite this, his work has continued to grow in influence since his death, particularly in the fields of developmental psychology and educational psychology. Vygotsky called the difference between solo performance and assisted performance the zone of proximal development (or ZPD for short)—meaning, figuratively speaking, the place or area of immediate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Unlike Piaget’s orientation to individuals’ thinking in his version of constructivism, some psychologists and educators have explicitly focused on the relationships and interactions between a learner and other individuals who are more knowledgeable or experienced. This includes connections with each other and connections between their increasing number of roles, obligations, hobbies, and other aspects of life. For Piaget, assimilation and accommodation work together to enrich a child’s thinking and to create what Piaget called cognitive equilibrium, which is a balance between reliance on prior information and openness to new information. This page includes the best colleges for psychology in the country. In both the psychological and social versions of constructivist learning, the novice is not really “taught” so much as simply allowed to learn. Motivations, Theories and Research for Educational Psychology Motivation is an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behavior. A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Another recent example of psychological constructivism is the cognitive theory of Jean Piaget (Piaget, 2001; Gruber & Voneche, 1995). The original research about this model of learning was not done with people, but with animals. Although they admit that thought and emotion influence learning, behaviorists either dismiss these factors as phenomena beyond the realm of scientific inquiry (methodological behaviorism) or convert internal factors into behavioral terms (neobehaviorism/radical behaviorism). EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology is the study of how people learn. Even older youth are thought to reason in this way much, or even all of the time. (1938/1998). Salkind, N. (2004). Lev Vygotsky, Albert Bandura, Jean Lave, Rogoff, Etienne Wenger, and Thomas Sergiovanni. In the case of issues about classroom learning, for example, educational psychologists have developed a number of theories and concepts that are relevant to classrooms, in that they describe at least some of what usually happens there and offer guidance for assisting learning. This fact makes sense, given the nature of public education: to a large extent, teaching is about making certain consequences (like praise or marks) depend on students’ engaging in certain activities (like reading certain material or doing assignments). Robert Slavin. Put in more social constructivist terms, the teacher arranges a zone of proximal development that allows the student to compare species successfully, but the student still has to construct or appropriate the comparisons for him or herself. As I hope you will see, each describes some aspects of learning not just in general, but as it happens in classrooms in particular. However, two differing strands of constructivism bear mentioning. She teaches courses in educational psychology and educational research; her research interests focus on how motivational theory can be used to create learning-focused classrooms. On constructivist epistemology. Frequently or rarely? This was because part of what reinforced their behavior was the behavior itself—whether it was making faces, running a mile, or contributing to a discussion. It turns out that this is the case for psychological constructivism, which offers important ideas about the appropriate sequencing of learning and development. Learning and behavior, 6th edition. Such dialogue is by implication less like “disturbing” students’ thinking than like “stretching” it beyond its former limits. The boy who made a face was reinforced not only by the pleasure of making a face, for example, but also by the giggles of classmates. We will therefore return to Piaget later to discuss development and its importance for teaching in more detail, Assimilation + Accommodation → Equilibrium → Schemata. A teacher can therefore stimulate development by provoking cognitive dissonance deliberately: by confronting a student with sights, actions, or ideas that do not fit with the student’s existing experiences and ideas. Albert Bandura, for example, emphasizes the roles that social observation and modeling play in learning, while Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger posit that learning works best in a community of practice that produces social capital that improves the health of the community and its members. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), implemented today in various domains from education and communication to psychology, refers to the acquisition of knowledge by direct observation, interaction, experiences, and outside media influence (Bryant, & Oliver, 2002). As the name implies, it is grounded in the notion that people learn and grow by forming connections. The rise of technology presents both challenges and opportunities for connection. List three things Goldilocks did in the three bears’ house. Pinpointing the most appropriate learning activities to accomplish this objective remains the job of the teacher-expert (that’s you), but the learning itself has to be accomplished by the student. Through this process of conditioning, people learn to either repeat or avoid behaviors. The rat had “discovered” that the consequence of pressing the level was to receive food. Constructivists agree that learners create knowledge rather than passively receiving it, and that preexisting knowledge plays a crucial role in their learning. Cognitive psychology understands knowledge acquisition schematically and symbolically. A sixth-grader takes home a book from the classroom library to read overnight (the operant). He or she must not only have knowledge and skill, but also know how to arrange experiences that make it easy and safe for learners to gain knowledge and skill themselves. Abstract thinking is possible, according to psychological constructivism, but it emerges relatively slowly and relatively late in development, after a person accumulates considerable concrete experience. Parents and teachers, it would seem, are left lingering on the sidelines, with few significant responsibilities for helping learners to construct knowledge. Whether you think of yourself as a psychological constructivist or a social constructivist, there are strategies for helping students help in develop their thinking—in fact the strategies constitute a major portion of this book, and are a major theme throughout the entire preservice teacher education programs. Novice → Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) ← Expert. On this point the answer seems to be clearly “yes.” There are countless classroom examples of consequences affecting students’ behavior in ways that resemble operant conditioning, although the process certainly does not account for all forms of student learning (Alberto & Troutman, 2005). If a student tells a joke to classmates and they laugh at it, then the student is likely to tell more jokes in the future and so on. Behaviorist learning theories first emerged in the late 19th century from the work of Edward Thorndike and Ivan Pavlov. Assimilation operates jointly with accommodation, which is the revision or modification of pre-existing concepts in terms of new information or experience. The process of education. This page offers a list of the best online schools for psychology. Language and dialogue therefore are primary, and development is seen as happening as a result—the converse of the sequence pictured by Piaget. At most it might be misconstrued as an oversimplified, overly concrete idea—as “just” about taking votes in class, for instance. For teachers, however, the most important finding may be this: partial or intermittent schedules of reinforcement generally cause learning to take longer, but also cause extinction of learning to take longer. Applied behavior analysis for teachers, 7th edition. the teacher) also has to organize the content into manageable parts, offer the parts in a sensible sequence, provide for suitable and successful practice, bring the parts back together again at the end, and somehow relate the entire experience to knowledge and skills meaningful to the learner already. Two theoretical perspectives within educational psychology are the cognitive perspective and the behavioral perspective. Discrimination learning usually results from the combined effects of reinforcement of the target behavior and extinction of similar generalized behaviors. But whatever the child’s age, ability to learn waits or depends upon the child’s stage of development. As students gain experience as students, they become able to think about how they themselves learn best, and you (as the teacher) can encourage such self-reflection as one of your goals for their learning. For the biology student mentioned above, for example, you may be able not only to plan activities that support comparing species, but also to devise ways for the student to think about how he or she might learn the same information independently. He also argued that a curriculum could only be justified if it related as fully as possible to the activities and responsibilities that students will probably have later, after leaving school. Psychologists who work in this field are interested in … 2 Educational Learning Theories edited by Molly Y. Zhou Dalton State College David Brown Dalton State College December, 2017 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA). (1966). Metacognition in literacy learning. (1996). These are cyclical stages that function as an ongoing feedback loop, which in turn allows learners to improve skills and apply new or recent knowledge. Rather than measuring learning based on observable behaviors, cognitivists evaluate learning based on a learner’s demonstration of knowledge and understanding. A preschool child who already understands the concept of bird, for example, might initially label any flying object with this term—even butterflies or mosquitoes. The main idea of psychological constructivism is that a person learns by mentally organizing and reorganizing new information or experiences. Theories in Educational Psychology’s purpose is to introduce readers to the pioneering educational psychology theories that continue to shape our understanding of the classroom learning environment, present support for the theories from perspectives in the current research literature, and share how these theoretical traditions have translated into effective teaching methods. A kindergarten child raises her hand in response to the teacher’s question about a story (the operant). Cognitivism emphasizes the importance of an expert in transmitting accurate information, yet sees a learner’s success or failure in absorbing this information as largely dependent upon the learner’s mental capacity, motivation, beliefs, and effort. This paper. Contemporary experientialists are interested in how a learner’s engagement and testing of new skills or concepts influences their learning environment, which creates a larger feedback loop that shapes the world in which we live. The former involves natural responses to environmental stimuli, while the latter involves the reinforcement of a response to stimuli. Traditional theories. Individual motivation is influenced by thoughts, beliefs, and values. Bloom’s taxonomy makes useful distinctions among possible kinds of knowledge needed by students, and therefore potentially helps in selecting activities that truly target students’ zones of proximal development in the sense meant by Vygotsky. The widespread use of learning objectives, for example, breaks down larger learning goals into a series of specific skills and behaviors desired from a student. When a student reads a book for the sheer enjoyment of reading, for example, he is reinforced by the reading itself, and we we can say that his reading is “intrinsically motivated.” More often, however, operant conditioning stimulates both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation at the same time. (Eds.). (2005). They were popularized during the first half of the 20th century through the work of John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and others. New York: Macmillan. As assimilation and accommodation about birds and other flying objects operate together over time, the child does not just revise and add to his vocabulary (such as acquiring a new word, “butterfly”), but also adds and remembers relevant new experiences and actions. For now, look briefly at just two. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Tell how the story would have been different if it had been about three fishes. Ferster, C., Skinner, B. F., Cheney, C., Morse, W., & Dews, D. Schedules of reinforcement. The efforts of today’s teachers to connect students’ new and preexisting knowledge aligns with social and contextual learning. For teachers concerned both about motivating students and about minimizing inappropriate behaviors, this is both good news and bad. A schema was not merely a concept, but an elaborated mixture of vocabulary, actions, and experience related to the concept. https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/BookDetail.aspx?bookId=153, Table 1: Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives: cognitive domain, Remembering or recalling facts, information, or procedures. As a result, teachers account for the demographics of their classrooms as much as they do lesson planning. Publishes research on educational psychology, focusing on applied psychology and the theory and practice crossing cultural and state boundaries. The following overview summarizes these five major theory groups and outlines the key theorists, definition, history, principles, and applications for each. Psychology gives education the theory of individual differences that every child has different mental ability and learns with different pace. Consistent with the ideas above, psychological constructivism tends to see a relatively limited role for abstract or hypothetical reasoning in the life of children—and even in the reasoning of youth and many adults. Download PDF. Such reasoning is regarded as an outgrowth of years of interacting with the environment very concretely. Piaget did recognize the importance of helpful others in his writings and theorizing, calling the process of support or assistance social transmission. Teachers work toward their desired objectives by using external stimuli, explaining and demonstrating a skill or behavior, and then inviting student practice and providing feedback that reinforces the behaviors or skills they wish students to learn or unlearn. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Behaviorism relies on the prediction or analysis of behavior based on causal stimuli, while education uses the process of positive and negative reinforcement to encourage or discourage behaviors. In practice, however, the actual behavior of teachers and students may be quite similar in both forms of constructivism. As we will see in the next chapter, however, there are more uses for a theory than its description of moment-to-moment interactions between teacher and students. Cognitivism has given rise to many evidence based education theories, including cognitive load theory, schema theory and dual coding theory as well as being the basis for retrieval practice. 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